GRAMMAR

March 29, 2008 at 4:02 am (Uncategorized)

Gerund

Apa yang dimasud dengan Gerund?

Gerund itu adalah kata-kata yang berakhiran Ing yang bisa berfungsi sebagai Verb sekaligus sebagai Noun juga. Oleh karena itu Gerund ini dapat juga disebut sebagai Verbal Noun atau Nominal Verb. Verbal Noun artinya Noun yang bersifat kata kerja, sedangkan Nominal Verb artinya Verb yang bersifat kata benda.

Bagaimana pemakaiannya dalam kalimat?

Gerund sebagai Noun dapat dipakai untuk:

  1. Subject: Blogging is healthy, Blogwalking is more healthy.
  2. Object: I like Blogging very much, She loves Blogwalking.
  3. Prepositional Object: Are you fond of reading Blog?, She succeeded in solving the problem.

Gerund sebagai Verb: She likes smoking pipes.

Sentences

Sentences adalah kalimat, yaitu sejumlah kata-kata yang tersusun dan mengandung arti.

Simple sentence adalah kalimat yang hanya terdiri dari satu object dan satu predikat.

Sarah likes ice cream.

Compound sentence adalah kalimat yang tersusun dari dua atau lebih simple sentence.

Sarah likes ice cream but Tika likes coffee.

Complex sentence adalah kalimat yang terdiri dari satu induk kalimat (main clause) dan satu atau lebih anak kalimat (subordinate clause).

She called us while we were having dinner.

Compound-Complex Sentence adalah kalimat yang terdiri dari dua atau lebih induk kalimat (main clause) dan satu atau lebih anak kalimat (subordinate clause).

Sarah said that she would go home but she never found time.

When the mail came, it was given at once to the secretary, but she didn’t examine it.

One of the most important features of effective style in writing is variety, varierty in sentence length and vairety in sentence type as suggested by Mr. Firdaus.

Negative sentence adalah kalimat yang mengadung pengertian negatif. ada beberapa cara untuk membentuk negative sentence, yaitu:

1. Memakai kata ‘not‘ yang ditempatkan sesudah auxiliary verb.

She can swim = She can not swim.
She will go = she will not go.
She must come = she must not come.
We shall go away = we shall not go away.
She may come in = She may not come in.

2. Jika dalam kalimat positif itu tidak ada auxiliary verb maka kita memakai kata kerja bantu Do, Does, Did ditambah Not.

I like smoking = I do not like smoking.
She swim in the morning = She doesn’t swim at night.
She said something = She didn’t say anything.

Memakai kata ‘no’

I have no money at all.
Se is no longer here.
She saw nobody.
She said nothing.
She went nowhere.
She invited no one.

4. Tidak memakai kata ‘not’ maupun ‘no’.

We shall be unable to join your party (unable = not able).
Gambling is illegal (illegal = not legal).
It is impossible to live without love (impossible = not possible).
She is a careless woman (careless = not careful).
unless the goods are received within two days we shall have to cancel our order (unless=if not).
The car is too expensive to buy = The car is very expensive; I can’t buy it.

So & So…That

Arti kata ‘So’ tergantung kepada pemakaiannya dalam kalimat, yaitu:

So = sangat, I love Sarah so much, She is so beautiful, There is so many things to do.
So = begitu, I think so, I’m not so sure about his job, As the father so is the son.
So = juga, Sarah is late and so is Tika, Sarah has a car and does Tika, Sarah can do it so can Tika, Sarah likes swimming and so does Tika, Sarah will come and so will Tika.

Contoh pemakaian so…that

I am so busy that I can’t help you.
Sarah is so happy that she is singing in the bathroom.
She is so rich that she can buy anything except love.
The man was so tired that he soon fell asleep.
Sarah is walking so fast that Tika can’t overtake her.
The car is so expensive that I can’t buy it.
paman Tyo was so absorbed in blogging that he didn’t notice that I was standing behind him.
It was raining so heavily that we cancelled going to the movies.

Either Or Not Either but Neither Nor

 

Either artinya salah satu di antara dua, biasanya diikuti oleh kata ‘or’.

Either Sarah or Tika will come here.
You may come here either on Saturday or Sunday.
You are free to choose either going to movies or going to the party.
You can use either Sarah’s car or mine.

Not either adalah bentuk negatif dari Either yang berarti: tidak satupun di antara dua itu.

I don’t like smoking and Sarah doesn’t either.
Sarah will not go away and Tika won’t either.
Sarah isn’t present today and Tika isn’t either.
Sarah may not go home yet and Tika may not either.

Neither itu kependekan dari not either.

Neither of two cars is mine.
Sarah can’t speak Dutch and neither can Mary.
Tika may not go dating and neither may Sarah.
Sarah doesn’t need a dictionary and neither does Tika.

Neither… Nor adalah bentuk negatif dari Either…Or yang berarti: tidak ini dan tidak itu juga.

Your book is neither here nor on the table.
She is neither cooking nor serving.
She can neither cooking nor washing.
She is neither British nor American, she is Australian.

To Be like Same as

To be like artinya: sama dengan, serupa, seperti.

Sarah is like her mother.
Sarah is like Tika.
They are like our children.

To be same as artinya: sama dengan.

This book is the same as that one.
Sarah’s car is the same as may car.

Sedangkan untuk menunjukkan persamaan antara dua benda atau orang maka pola yang dipakai adalah To Be The Same + Noun atau as… as.

Sarah is the same beautiful as Tika = Sarah is as beautiful as Tika.
This blog is the same good as that one = This blog is as good as that one.
Sarah speaks English as fluently as Tika.

Untuk menyatakan perbedaan biasanya menggunakan pola To Be Different From.


 

 

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